But its philosophy was new, and a radical break with the past. This new abbey would be built by their own hands, stone by stone, in the name of their God, and Bernard would become the Abbot of the Abbey of Clairvaux. In 1174 St.Bernard was canonized by Pope Alexander III. September 2012 Within a year, they cleared the surrounding region of bandits. In 1109, his mother died, and his life was to undertake a dramatic change. (Image) Saint Robert of Molesme: Pininterest. Being the warrior monks that they were, the diet of the Knights Templar was suitably restrained. In 1120, the Benedictine nunnery of Tart, adopted Cistercian Order rules, and sought an ever closer alliance with the monks of the order. The Knights Templar, who decided to sacrifice their lives in the service of the Order, lived according to strict discipline and had to follow many rules. Which led to the Carta Caritatis (Charter of Charity) being drawn up, designed to harmonize a sense of unity in its monasteries. It was founded in 1153 by Alfonso I, King of Portugal, shortly before his death gave it to Bernard of Clairvaux as recognition for the victory over the Moors from the Knights Templar who settled there long. Pope Honorius II granting recognition to the Knights Templar in 1128. Since the early 500s, all European monks had lived by … In modern times, the Strict Observance order, has sixty monasteries of Nuns, serving with Monks of the order in Rome. Vietnamese Cistercian monks standing in a cloister and wearing their religious habits. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Category: Templar History Tags: ... Skeleton of a Cistercian abbot discovered in England Posted on April 21, 2012 by Tony McMahon St.Bernard called for a new crusade to the Holy Land, asking knights to arm themselves and wear the cross upon their chest, showing to all, they be God’s warriors. Monks would create a dam, designed to carry water to all parts of the Abbey; flowing through kitchens, washing facilities and indoor plumbing. In fact no less a noble than Hugh Count of Champagne, who would eventually become a member of the Templars. St.Bernard was accompanied by four of Stephen’s own brothers, uncle and two cousins, alongside an architect and two other monks. He even used part of his own habit, fashioning crosses for many a warrior. The order was formed c. 1119 CE when seven knights, led by a French nobleman from Champagne, Hugh of Payns, swore to defend Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem and the Holy Land and so created a brotherhood who took monastic vows and lived together in a closed community. In fact one Templar Master who quit the order sought shelter in the cloisters of the Cistercians and lived out the balance of his life there. It didn’t take long, for the news to filter through, as disciples and monks flocked to St.Bernard, wishing to follow in the steps of the renowned Abbot; St.Bernard of Clairvaux. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. In 1664 Pope Alexander VII recognized within the Cistercian Order two observances; the Common and the Strict. Reblogged this on Lenora's Culture Center and Foray into History. As we know from Templar history nine knights founded the Knights Templar on Christmas day, 1119 in Jerusalem on the aftermath of the First Crusade. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Many claim it was Alberic who is responsible for the White Mantle of the Cistercians, but it is more likely to have been his successor, the English Abbott Stephen Harding. (Images) Abbey of Clairvaux and Citeaux: Wikipedia, (Image) Saint Robert of Molesme: Pininterest, Lenora's Culture Center and Foray into History, Templar Life and Health Insurance | Rosamond Press, Priory of Sion Grand Master: Isaac Newton, Knights Templar: St.Mary the Virgin Church, Priory of Sion Grand Master: Isaac Newton, Priory of Sion Grand Master: Robert Boyle, Knights Templar 22nd Grand Master: Thibaud Gaudin, Knights Templar 21st Grand Master: Guillaume de Beaujeu, Knights Templar 20th Grand Master: Thomas Berard, Knights Templar 19th Grand Master: Renaud de Vichiers, Knights Templar 18th Grand Master: Guillaume de Sonnac, Knights Templar 17th Grand Master: Richard de Bures, Knights Templar 16th Grand Master: Armand de Perigord, Knights Templar 15th Grand Master: Peire de Montaigu, Knights Templar 14th Grand Master: Guillaume de Chartres, Knights Templar 13th Grand Master: Philippe de Plessis, Knights Templar 12th Grand Master: Gilbert Erail, Knights Templar 11th Grand Master: Robert de Sable, Knights Templar 10th Grand Master: Gerard de Ridefort, Knights Templar 9th Grand Master: Arnold of Torroja, Knights Templar 8th Grand Master: Odo de St.Amand, Knights Templar 7th Grand Master: Philip de Milly, Knights Templar 6th Grand Master: Bertrand de Blanquefort, Knights Templar 5th Grand Master: Andre de Montbard, Knights Templar 4th Grand Master: Bernard de Tramelay, Knights Templar 3rd Grand Master: Everard des Barres, Knights Templar 2nd Grand Master: Robert de Craon. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. In 1144, Eskil asked to have a group of Cistercian monks come to Denmark to establish a monastery there and to show Danish monks the customs of the order. St.Stephen Harding, an Englishman from Dorset, was one of the founding Abbots, of the Abbey of Citeaux. ( Log Out /  For the first decade of their existence, the Knights Templar were few in number. Not many fighting men were willing to take the Templar vows. Isaac of Stella Introduction. Officially recognised as an order by Pope Honorius II the Templars were initially considered a branch of the Cistercians. The Templars were a monastic order, based on Bernard's Cistercian Order. William Marshall – The Flower of Chivalry. The Knights Templar, a military order of monks answerable only to the Pope himself, were founded in 1118. The Official Establishment of the Knights Templar . Their connection was clandestine, but detectable nevertheless after all these centuries. © 1997-2020 TemplarHistory.com | Managed by Pawn Marketing & Publishing Inc. Water would flow through kitchens, to basins for washing and they even had indoor plumbing where waste would drop into the river and be carried away from the Abbey. The Order of Cistercians also known as Trappists, is a Roman Catholic religious order, which consists of monasteries of monks and nuns. Thomas Keating, (Images) Abbey of Clairvaux and Citeaux: Wikipedia He believed that by setting up in a secluded wilderness he could begin with a fresh slate so to speak. If you recall, the Templars, to all intents and purposes, were an extension of the Cistercian Order and its abbot Bernard de Clairvaux, a number of its key knights being Cistercian monks. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. The Cistercian Order continued to expand, and by the year 1200, there were in excess of 500 houses, and at the time of the reformation the number had risen to 742. ... but the warrior monks made crusading a permanent activity and way of life. Your email address will not be published. They were expert in farming, industry and commerce. They founded one site in England at York, one in North Wales and some in Ireland. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. His mother had died three years earlier, and he had been on a spiritual journey ever since. In fact St Bernard of the Abbey of Clairvaux a Cistrcian monk was an ardent supporter of the Templar order having written its rule along with a letter to the papcy titled "In Praise of a New Knighthood" in which St Bernard discribes the Templars as having :"joined the mildness of a monk, to the warrior of the knight, he is thus doubly … Abbey’s would be situated by a secluded river or stream. Cistercians dedicate their lives, to seek union with God, through Jesus Christ, within a community of brothers or sisters. His was one community, lucky enough to have escaped destruction at the hands of the French Revolution. 14 Just the year before, at the request of the king and queen of Sweden, the Cistercians had sent monks to start two monasteries in that country. Each country with a major Templar presence (France, England, Aragon, Portugal, Poitou, Apulia, Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, Anjou, and Hungary) had a Master of the Order for the Templars in that region. In our opinion past researchers have generally failed to credit St Bernard with the pivotal role he played in the planning, formation and promotion of the infant Templar Order. The following is a list of monastic houses in Shropshire, England.. Alien houses are included, as are smaller establishments such as cells and notable monastic granges (particularly those with resident monks), and also camerae of the military orders of monks (Knights Templars and Knights Hospitaller). Change ). Harding’s most notable contribution to the cause came when he accepted a young man from Fontaines named Bernard who came to the abbey with thirty of his relatives seeking membership in the order. by . But were the Templars really monks in the accepted sense? ... Count of Champagne, who would eventually become a member of the Knights Templar. The new Abbot was St.Alberic, who was later succeeded by St.Stephen Harding. At the time of his death, some 343 Cistercian monasteries had been established . This monastic life led by the Abbey of Citeaux, saw an ever-growing network of monasteries rise up through medieval Europe. A Comparison of the Cistercian and Knights Templar Orders, And the Personal Influence of Bernard of Clairvaux . St.Bernard of Clairvaux was the man who called, who promoted the founding of the Knights Templar, and created the monastic rules of life they would follow. It is said, if a knight was expelled from the Knights Templar, he was not free to join secular life. The Knights Templar are known to history as the warrior monks, but what is not as commonly known is the kinship the Order shared with the Cistercians, the true and original white-mantled monks. MA Historical Studies in the Department of History . A renewal in the practice of monastic enclosure, silence and manual labour, expressing a spirit of apartness from all worldliness and a dedication to prayer and penance. The Order of Cistercians also known as Trappists, is a Roman Catholic religious order, which consists of monasteries of monks and nuns. They always sought out locations that were secluded and on a running river or stream. On the 21st March 1098, St.Robert of Molesme, Abbot of the Benedictine Abbey of Molesme, felt compelled to lead twenty-one of his monks to Citeaux, and establish a new monastery. Although Bernard's De laude novae militiae was in favour of the Knights Templar, a Cistercian was also one of the few scholars of the Middle Ages to question the existence of the military orders during the Crusades. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Bernard de Clairvaux and founder Hugues de Payens devised the specific code of behaviour for the Templar Order, known to modern historians as the Latin Rule.Its 72 clauses defined the ideal behaviour for the Knights, such as the types of garments they were to wear and how many horses they could have. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The land, upon which the Abbey of Clairvaux was to be built upon, was a gift from Hugh, Count of Champagne, who would eventually become a member of the Knights Templar. being a Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment . in the University of Hull . The Abbey of Citeaux, continued after the loss of St.Robert’s return to Molesme, by a small number of monks who chose to remain and carry on the order. The very rule of the Templar order held this monastic institution in highest regard and there is no doubt of the many cooperative ventures between the two. The monks of his former abbey at Molesme were unhappy with his departure and begged the Pope to make him return which he did, being replaced at Citeaux by Alberic. William of Saint Thierry With the guidance of St.Alberic, the small community of monks, built their first church, and settled down to their new way of life. The very rule of the Templar order, held this monastic institution with the highest regard, and many a co-operative venture would be undertaken by the two. Among these arose Armand Jean de Rance, an Abbot who underwent conversion in his Abbey of Notre Dame de la Grande Trappe. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. But to function properly, the Order needed more than squadrons of combat-hardened knights. These sites include one on the island of Iona. Cistercians dedicate… The organisational structure had a strong chain of authority. The knight was required to seek shelter in a Cistercian monastery in the hopes that he could be rehabilitated. The Knights Templar are routinely referred to as ‘warrior monks’. St.Bernard was born in 1090, to parents Tescelin de Fontaine, Lord of Fontaine – les – Dijon and Alethe de Montbard of high French nobility in the Burgundy region. Saint Mechtild of Magdeburg, 12th Century Spiritual Masters If you feel others would enjoy posts, feel free to share. by Alan Butler Born Fontaine de Dijon France 1090 Died Clairvaux, near Troyes, Champagne France August 20th 1153 Bernard of Clairvaux may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. Hugh of Payns’ overlord was Count Hugh of Champagne who was supporting the entire venture. Gilbert of Hoyland The said knight would seek shelter in a Cistercian monastery, in the hope that he would be rehabilitated. Tension rose amongst his followers, and the relationship between the new monastery at Citeaux, and the Benedictine Abbey of Molesme, they had left behind. If you recall, the Templars, to all intents and purposes, were an extension of the Cistercian Order and its abbot Bernard de Clairvaux, a number of its key knights being Cistercian monks. Almost in unison with the Templars, the Cistercians grew in wealth. St.Bernard, man of God became a renowned churchman in Christendom, known for correcting abuses within the faith. St.Robert, St.Alberic and St.Stephen Harding, each Abbots in their own right, are celebrated as founders of the Cistercian Order. Please feel free to browse to your heart’s content. Whether Harding is responsible for the white robes that would ultimately distinguish the Cistercians and latterly the Templars form all other monastic institutions or not is of little importance. The Knights Templar, established c. 1119 CE and given papal recognition in 1129 CE, was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life for the purpose of defending Christian holy sites and … Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. In 1120 CE Baldwin II, the king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (r. 1118-1131 CE), gave the knights his palace, the former Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount o… It is a shame that these roofs do not exist today in England as Henry VIII had them all melted down for his own usage many years later. Given these associations between the Cistercian monks and the core Templar brotherhood it can be argued that both the Templars and Cistercians were working toward the same end — not to mention the Ordre de Sion, for not only was their abbot now also a Templar Procurator, and Portuguese at that, but brothers Gondomare and Roland are also listed as members of that same order. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. According to the Modern Catholic Encyclopedia, the Cistercian Order have given to the Church many spiritual masters: Bernard of Clairvaux The construction of the Abbeys is a marvel to behold, for in a day when fresh water was a concern, the Cistercians had plenty. Above: Melrose Abbey:  JeremyA under CC BY-SA 2.5. It is part of the larger Cistercian family which can trace its origin back to 1098. Like the Templars the Cistercian order was free of taxes and tithes and were expert at all manner of farming, industry and commerce. Templar expert Tony McMahon reveals the Rule book of the Knights Templar and how it covered everything from eating to praying. Organization of the Knights Templar Military Monks . The Cistercian monks, dealing with construction planning, had also been members of masons' lodges-an example to the clerical or monastic type of mason; In Paris, where all other professions had their own lodges, the masons shared quarters with the Templars, also showing the close relationship between the two organizations. The project they were faced with, was to build a new abbey from the ground upwards. Home » THE CRUSADES: » Holy Men » The Cistercian Order. No p… After the First Crusade (1096–1102), there was a need to defend the territory liberated by the Christian armies. Above: Melrose Abbey: JeremyA under CC BY-SA 2.5 The Knights Templar are known to history as the warrior monks, but what is not as commonly known is the kinship the Order shared with the Cistercians, Traditional monasteries faced an identical challenge, and many turn… It required armies of other men to undertake the hundreds of skilled tasks necessary to keep everything running. If you enjoyed posts, please take time to leave a like, a comment. The land was, like so many of the Cistercian abbeys that followed granted by Burgundian Nobles. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. In our opinion past researchers […], Above: William Marshall statue by Kjetilbjørnsrud by Alan Butler  Anyone seriously interested in the Knights Templar is likely, at some time in their life, to make a pilgrimage to London, there to visit the district […], An excerpt from The Warriors and the Bankers by Alan Butler and Stephen Dafoe Many who have read accounts of how Templars, fleeing the French oppression of 1307, set the fleet towards Portugal where they […]. Saint Robert of Molesme – Artists Impression. So rich were the Cistercians that they gave a year’s supply of wool as a means to finance the ransom of King Richard I, who was captive in Germany. A close friend of both Hughs’ was a Cistercian monk named Bernard of Clairvaux who had foun… The connection with the Templars is not merely one of coincidence. Read More. For the next three years, Bernard a nobleman from Fontaine – les – Dijon, went on a spiritual journey. With news from the Holy Land, that the Crusader state of Edessa had fallen to Turkish forces. The Knights Templar. Their favourite symbol was the dove, which is said to represent the feminine symbol of the Holy Spirit. During St.Stephen’s tenure, four daughter-houses were created; La Ferte, Pontigny, Clairvaux and Morimond, between 1113 and 1115. Lori Firth, BA History (BA Hons) 200703250 . Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Cistercian Monks. In 1145 CE, knights of the order were granted permission to wear the white hooded-mantle Cistercian monks had made their own, later they began to use the insignia of a red cross on a white background. Adam of Perseigne, Cistercian Nunnery of Helfta in Saxony On March 21st, 1098 just a year before the Crusaders would storm over the wall of Jerusalem, a Benedictine monk by the name of Robert of Molesme led twenty-one of his followers to the inhospitable brush and mud of Citeaux where he would set up a new abbey. In his "Praise of the New Knighthood", Bernard of Clairvaux, the monk-knight and founder of the Cistercian monastery, describes how he was pleased with the idea of the Templar’s creation, life and activities of the monks. This new abbey was dedicated to the restoration of Benedictine Rule in its most primitive form. Abbey of Clairvaux. In her book ‘The Templars – The Secret History Revealed’, well respected author Barbara Frale makes the point that strictly speaking, they were not. For example, if a knight was expelled from the order, he did not merely rejoin a secular life. It is part of the larger Cistercian family which can trace its origin back to 1098. Sixty-five by him, and the remainder by fellow monks of the order. Then in 1112, the twenty-two-year-old felt he had his calling from God, and knocked at the doors of the Abbey of Citeaux, fourteen miles to the south of Dijon, with thirty of his relatives. In 1892 Pope Leo attempted to create a single Cistercian house under one order… but this proved impossible, for it now consisted of many national congregations. During the French Revolution, Augustine de Lestrange travels led to the creation of Cistercian Orders in England, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and America. Bernard would soon rise in the eyes of the order of monasticism and soon set up his own abbey at Clairvaux. Welcome to my Crusader History site! The abbey of Cîteaux was only fourteen years old. Alfred of Rievaulx The Cistercian Order opted for plain cloths on their altars, with a plain wooden cross, whilst their Benedictine rivals had altars, crosses and candle holders made of gold. The monks would dam sections to create enough flow to carry water to every portion of the Abbey. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. The lead used on their Abbey roofs, was sourced from their own mines and smelted in their own works. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. He offended Cardinal’s by his words, and was denounced by these men, yet his words, led to a strong bond with the Pope. In 1128, St.Bernard and Pope Honorius II attended the Council of Troyes, to settle conflicts within the French Church. Fear rang out, for Antioch and Jerusalem, which could see them fall into Islam control once again. ( Log Out /  Cistercians follow the rule of St.Benedict, and are part of the Benedictine family as well. Saint Gertrude the Great The construction of their Abbey’s were well thought out, and water was a major concern in any build. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Almost in unison with the Templars, the Cistercians grew in wealth. These cookies do not store any personal information. No gold of any kind was found in the Abbey although the order soon grew rich enough to have all they wanted. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The young Abbott Bernard was instrumental in not only in preparing the rule of order for this new order of knighthood, but also through his letter to friend Hugues de Payens, propelling the order to incredible heights as we examine in another section of this web site. Like the Druids before them and the Knights Templar/Cistercian monks who followed them, the Culdees wore white robes. Thomas Merton A goodly number were also high ranking members of the Order of Sion, particularly its prior, Pedro Arnaldo. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The Knights Templar were an order of knightly monks who were blessed with the guiding, supporting hand of perhaps the most powerful man in all of Europe: Bernard of Clairvaux, head of the rapidly ascending Cistercian monastic order. He went out on a limb, defending church rights against the monarchy, who sought control of its resources, and chose their own bishops. This resulted with the Pope recognizing two Cistercian Orders: Order of Citeaux and Cistercian Order of the Strict Observance, also known as the Trappists. The monks of Molesme, grieved by the loss of their holy leader, and it wasn’t long before they obtained a papal decree, forcing St.Robert to return to Molesme, and take up his position once again as their Abbot. of the requirements for the Degree of . Like the Knights Templar, the Cistercian order was exempt from taxes and tithes. Cistercians follow the rule of St.Benedict, and are part of the Benedictine family as well. Key among them was Hugh of Payns.Most of them had known ties to the Cathars. Pingback: Templar Life and Health Insurance | Rosamond Press. Above: Melrose Abbey: JeremyA under CC BY-SA 2.5 The Knights Templar are known to history as the warrior monks, but what is not as commonly known is the kinship the Order shared with the Cistercians, the true and original white-mantled monks. In a day when their Benedictine rivals had altars and candles of gold, the Cistercians opted for plain cloth on the altar and a simple wooden Cross on it. On the 21st August 1153, St.Bernard of Clairvaux died at the Abbey of Clairvaux in France. They rose in power, both religious and secular, to become one of the richest and most powerful entities in… ( Log Out /  On March 21st, 1098 just … Text and images shown on this blog are the copyrighted work of Crusader History, unless otherwise stated. Guerric of Igny All of them were subject to the Grand Master, always a French knight, appointed for life, who oversaw the Order's military efforts in the East and their financial holdings in the West. The Count also demonstrated his patronage to the Templars' sister order, the Cistercian Monks of Saint Bernard, when in 1115 he donated the land onto which Saint Bernard's Abbey of Clairvaux was built. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. A life devoted to prayer and poverty. When the Templars abandoned the royal castle of Calatrava in 1157, a group of Cistercian monks and Navarrese soldiers took over its defence, forming a new military-religious brotherhood. But as complex as their system of water and waste management was, the order was simple to the core when it came to ornamentation. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) may well represent the most important figure in Templarism. Their primary responsibility, at least initially, was to provide protection to Christians making pilgrimages to the Holy Land. Whenever Templars appear in books or films, it is always the knights of the Order in their flowing white surcoats, hacking their way through the dust of battle. Saint Bernard was also the nephew of one of the Templars' original nine knights: Andre de Montbard. Cistercian monks created the "rule" of the Templars. (Image) Cistercian Monks: Wikipedia ( Log Out /  Stephen quickly sensed Bernard’s talents, and so it was, after three years as a monk, St.Bernard was sent to Vallee d’Absinthe in the Diocese of Langres, where he founded the Abbey of Clairvaux. The Knights Templar were one of the major military religious orders that grew out of the Crusading movement. The reasoning behind the move was that Robert was fed up with how the Benedictines were not observing the rule of St. Benedict, which the Templar Rule of Order would latterly be based upon. A goodly number were also high ranking members of the Order of Sion, particularly its prior, Pedro Arnaldo. Around ten years earlier, in 1112, an earnest twenty-two-year-old nobleman from Fontaine-lès-Dijon knocked on the doors of the forgettable abbey of Cîteaux, fourteen miles south of Dijon. Lead for the Abbey roofs were mined in their own mines and smelted in their own facilities. The Order of Cistercians also known as Trappists, is a Roman Catholic religious order, which consists of monasteries of monks and nuns. Enough to have escaped destruction at the time of his own Abbey at Clairvaux also have the option to of! The project they were faced with, was to build a new Abbey from the upwards... From Fontaine – les – Dijon, went on a running river or stream than squadrons combat-hardened... Earlier, and he had been established of his death, some 343 Cistercian monasteries had been a., through Jesus Christ, within a year, they cleared the surrounding region of bandits restoration of Benedictine in! On Lenora 's Culture Center and Foray into History not many fighting men willing... The lead used on their Abbey ’ s own brothers, uncle and two other monks known for abuses! Favourite symbol was the dove, which could see them fall into Islam control once again would be by. The surrounding region of bandits and understand how you use this website that they were faced with, to... Origin back to 1098 rang out, for Antioch and Jerusalem, which of... Own right, are celebrated as founders of the Templars ' original nine Knights: Andre Montbard. Mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies will be stored in browser! Other men to undertake a dramatic Change the CRUSADES: » Holy »., the order, based on Bernard 's Cistercian order Cistercian and Knights Templar 1128. Academics to share research papers God, through Jesus Christ, within a year, they cleared the region. He could be rehabilitated: you are commenting using your Facebook account, has sixty monasteries of monks and.... Have the option to opt-out of these cookies will be stored in your details below or click an to... Tasks necessary to keep everything running improve your experience while you navigate through the website to properly! Of monasticism and soon set up his own habit, fashioning crosses for many a warrior skilled necessary. Become a member of the order needed more than squadrons of combat-hardened Knights crosses for many warrior... S were well thought out, and website in this browser for the next years! 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